Urology is a field of medicine that studies diseases of the urinary system, namely the kidneys, adrenal glands, bladder, urethra, and genital organs.

A urologist is a specialist who deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases of the genitourinary system. It is a misconception to consider urology solely a field of male diseases. Both women and men can consult a urologist. Specialists provide comprehensive medical care for disorders of the ureters, bladder, kidneys, and urethra, as well as male reproductive system disorders.

Men should undergo a urological examination at least once a year, both in old and young age, even in the absence of any complaints and concerns. Annual check-ups for women are not mandatory but require an individual approach, as well as the presence of specific complaints. Typically, a referral to a urologist for suspected urological pathology is made by a gynecologist.

Men over the age of forty should visit this specialist twice a year.

  • When to Consult a Urologist:

    • Pain in the genital and lower back area;
    • Urinary disturbances;
    • Changes in urine color and transparency, appearance of blood and pus;
    • Abnormal discharges from the urethra outside the act of urination;
    • Pathological changes in ejaculate;
    • Urinary incontinence;
    • Pain and burning sensation during urination;
    • Frequent or too rare urges to urinate;
    • Rashes, erosions, or plaques on the genital organs;
    • Childlessness in marriage despite an active sex life.
  • How a Urologist's Examination Proceeds

    During the first appointment, through conversation with the patient, the doctor gathers medical history, clarifies the concerns and their duration, and when and under what circumstances the symptoms first appeared. There might be questions about previously and currently endured diseases, lifestyle, and intimate health, especially if complaints are related to erectile dysfunction or inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system.

    The urologist will review medical documentation brought by the patient, which can provide additional health information and narrow or broaden the diagnostic search.

    After collecting the history, the doctor conducts a medical examination: carefully examines the skin and mucous membranes, palpates the patient's abdomen, taps the lower back, measures blood pressure and pulse, and body temperature.

    In many cases, the initial appointment includes rectal palpation of the prostate through the rectum. This examination is essential for detecting pathological changes in the prostate gland and assessing its shape, size, and consistency. Rectal examination is necessary in cases where the doctor suspects based on the patient's complaints. Another diagnostic option, similar in sensation to palpation, is transrectal ultrasonography of the prostate through a rectal probe. This may also be conducted during the first consultation.

    Examination of women is conducted on a chair. The doctor examines the external genital organs and urethra. Palpation of the kidney and bladder area is mandatory, assessing the patient's reaction to all actions. Pain during the examination can be an important indicator of an inflammatory process and a range of other pathologies.

    Based on the appointment results, the doctor will make a preliminary diagnosis or, if the problem is apparent, issue a conclusion and suggest a treatment plan.

    However, additional diagnostics are often required. In such cases, the doctor refers to necessary examinations and analyses. Our clinic offers a full range of diagnostic services.

    Despite the rarity of final diagnosis within the scope of a primary consultation, this appointment is an important step towards solving the issue.

    The next stage involves the patient undergoing all necessary laboratory tests to identify hidden symptoms of the disease that cannot be detected during an examination. This stage also includes laboratory tests aimed at assessing the overall health state, diagnosing accompanying pathologies and disorders that may affect the main disease's development.

    Then follows instrumental diagnostics, which includes visualization diagnostic procedures and functional diagnostic methods. Visualization of internal organs helps assess their structure, identify the scope of pathological changes, their nature, and impact on surrounding tissues. Functional tests help analyze the functionality of vital organs, timely detect signs of insufficiency, and correct them.

  • Diagnostic Methods in Urology

    • Laboratory studies (smear for flora, bacteriological culture, urine analysis, spermogram, tissue biopsy);
    • Ultrasonography (including TRUSI – transrectal ultrasonography of the prostate);
    • Cystoscopy (examination of the internal surface of the bladder using an endoscope through the urethra);
    • Computed Tomography (CT).
  • Preparation

    Before visiting a urologist, some preparation is recommended, applicable for both men and women. This will enable you to complete all necessary examinations in one go, allowing the doctor to gather sufficient diagnostic information.

    The preparation should include several points:

    • Avoid sexual intercourse for 2-3 days before the examination. This will provide a clearer clinical picture.
    • Gather all medical documentation, including tests and results of any examinations undergone in the last six months. This is necessary for a more comprehensive collection of medical history.
    • Prepare a list of questions for the urologist. It's best to do this in advance to remember all important details during the appointment. You can add to the list over several days. But don't forget to take it with you to the appointment.
    • Before the appointment, take a hygienic shower and change underwear. Avoid using cleansing agents, gels, or antiseptic solutions. A regular shower is sufficient. Do not treat the genital organs with Miramistin, Chlorhexidine, or other antibacterial agents, as this will render the analysis results unreliable.
    • Men should empty their bowels since a urological examination in men invariably involves an examination of the prostate gland. For this, the rectum should be free from fecal matter.

Specialists in the Field

Evgeny Vladimirovich Kopasov
Evgeny Vladimirovich Kopasov


Igor Ivanovich Abramov
Igor Ivanovich Abramov