An oncologist is a physician specializing in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of neoplasms (malignant and benign). They also study the mechanisms of their development and causes, and conduct treatment or prevention. Clinically, a tumor represents a source of abnormal tissue growth in various organs and tissues of the human body.

Benign tumors develop very slowly and can exist in the human body for a long time. As the tumor grows, it pushes aside other tissues where it developed. The histological structure of the tumor is very similar to the tissue in which it developed. Therefore, they are named after the tissue itself (bone tissue - osteoma, muscle tissue - myoma, fatty tissue - lipoma, etc.). To completely cure the patient, it is necessary to remove the benign tumor along with its capsule. Benign tumors do not tend to recur.

Malignant tumors do not resemble the tissues from which they are formed, as they consist of immature cells that lead to complete loss of the ability to control their division and differentiation (the degree of cell development). Tumors are classified based on the degree of differentiation into highly, moderately, poorly, and undifferentiated tumors. Sometimes, due to a low level of differentiation of cells, a tumor can become so atypical and unrecognizable that it becomes impossible to determine the source from which it arose. Even histological examination does not always provide the possibility to determine the tissue-source of such a tumor. Clinical manifestations of a malignant tumor are quite diverse. Such neoplasms are prone to focal growth and penetration into surrounding tissues and organs. This process is called metastasis.

Malignant tumors often recur and require a special individual approach and the use of aggressive therapy methods. In the presence of metastases in distant organs, the prognosis is generally unfavorable.

Thus, the most important difference between benign and malignant formations lies in their impact on the body. Benign tumors manifest themselves locally: they cause a number of inconveniences, cause a feeling of discomfort, and can compress nearby nerves, vessels, and surrounding organs.

Malignant tumors, in the first place, manifest themselves systemically. This occurs because malignant neoplasms cause cancer intoxication (poisoning). This happens for two reasons: firstly, rapidly multiplying tumor cells require nutrients, which they actively consume, while healthy body tissues begin to "starve". The second reason is the decay of the tumor due to a lack of its blood supply, as blood vessels simply do not grow at the same rate as the development of pathological cells. The products of decay poison the human body.

All these factors undoubtedly deplete the body, causing inflammatory processes. Hence, the symptoms of a malignant tumor: weakness, lethargy, general malaise, increased body temperature. Due to reduced immunity, the patient becomes more vulnerable to various infections.

Most often, the clinical picture of most oncopathologies in the early stages is not very informative. An exception is melanoma - skin cancer, formed from pigment cells. A neoplasm in the form of a mole has the following characteristics: it grows rapidly, changes shape and color. During regular professional examination, such changes can be easily detected and timely treatment can be started. In other forms of cancer, the first symptoms do not fully manifest themselves, remaining indistinct until the grown tumor interferes with the functioning of certain organs.

At the EVIMED clinic, Oleg Alexandrovich Gladkov, an oncologist, chemotherapist, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Honored Physician of the Russian Federation, and member of the RUSSCO board, conducts consultations. In 1997, O. A. Gladkov defended his candidate's dissertation, and in 2010 – his doctoral dissertation.

Oleg Alexandrovich is a leading specialist in the field of medicinal treatment of malignant neoplasms, author of more than 110 publications, and has repeatedly presented the results of research at international and Russian conferences, symposiums, and congresses.

He has visited major European clinics multiple times and made a significant contribution to the study of new effective antitumor drugs. Under his direct participation and leadership, about 120 clinical trials have been conducted, and new classes of antitumor drugs have been introduced into clinical practice. He is currently actively involved in organizing and conducting international and domestic clinical studies in the field of drug treatment of patients with various oncological diseases. The results of these studies are published in prestigious foreign and domestic medical journals. He actively participates in the development of Russian clinical and practical recommendations for the treatment of malignant tumors by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation and RUSSCO.

At the EVIMED clinic, we guarantee a comprehensive and individual approach to each patient. In our work, we focus on the best world practices and treat each patient as a member of the family.

  • Conditions that should not be ignored:

    • A cough that persists for over a month, particularly concerning if accompanied by blood-streaked sputum. This situation is typical for bronchopulmonary infections, but can also be an early sign of lung cancer.
    • Changes in bowel habits. Hormonal imbalances, dietary errors, and stress can cause such changes: alterations in the shape and nature of stool, frequency of bowel movements. The same symptoms can accompany the early stages of intestinal neoplasia. Do not delay a doctor's visit if you notice blood in your stool.
    • Anemia. This condition can be a complication of various diseases and is one of the symptoms of colon cancer. Anemia can be detected through laboratory tests.
    • Changes in the breasts. Consult a mammologist if you notice breast or nipple shape changes, asymmetry, or if there are murky or bloody discharges from the nipple, or changes on the skin of the breasts (ulcerations, peeling).
    • Urinary issues. In men, complaints about difficulties with urination and blood in the urine in some cases are caused by oncopathology of the prostate gland or bladder. In women, similar symptoms can sometimes be the first signs of cancer of the reproductive system.
    • Hoarseness. If hoarseness is not associated with surgeries in that area, chronic tonsillitis, or smoking, it is advisable to visit a doctor to exclude an oncological diagnosis.
    • Lump in the scrotum. A painless, dense formation is a leading sign of testicular cancer.
    • Enlargement of lymph nodes. In the context of infectious processes, enlargement and/or hardening of lymph nodes are observed. After a month, the structure typically returns to its original size. If the hardening persists, consult a doctor.
    • Heartburn. Endoscopic examination is recommended for persistent heartburn or in cases where there is no effect from taking special medications.
    • Swallowing difficulties. An experienced doctor will perform differential diagnosis with esophageal cancer, as this symptom is one of its first signs. The complaint is also characteristic of thyroid gland oncopathologies.
    • Vaginal discharge. Attention should be paid to purulent or bloody (heavy or spotting) discharges between menstrual cycles, after sexual intercourse, or after menopause.
    • Unexplained weight loss, chills, and night sweats. These complaints are often associated with thyroid gland dysfunction, parasitic, bacterial, and viral infections. In some cases, such a clinical picture is a manifestation of oncology.
    • Abdominal bloating. Meteorism combined with rapid satiety, changes in urination frequency, discomfort in the lumbar region and lower abdomen signal a growing malignant ovarian neoplasm.
    • Changes in a mole. A dermatologist will explain the symptoms observed in skin cancer. The leading changes in a mole include rapid growth, blurred edges, and color change.
    • Non-healing ulcers. In cases of high blood sugar levels, ulcers and wounds on the skin and mucous membranes do not heal for a long time. The same symptoms (both in adults and children) are characteristic of cancer.
  • Cancer Diagnostics

    Early detection of the disease contributes to a favorable outcome of treatment and the absence of recurrences in the future. The following types of cancer diagnostics are offered at the clinic:

    • Laboratory diagnostics (blood tests for tumor markers, genetic studies)
    • Ultrasound (ultrasonography)
    • CT (Computed Tomography)
    • Biopsy under ultrasound guidance
    • Endoscopic diagnostic methods (gastroscopy, colonoscopy)

    Early diagnosis of oncological diseases requires high-quality execution of high-tech diagnostic procedures in accordance with international protocols. Here, our clinic offers patients the use of low-dose computed tomography of the chest organs instead of traditional fluorography for the diagnosis of lung diseases, the use of digital endoscopic techniques with high resolution for early diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract diseases, and experienced and highly qualified specialists conduct ultrasonography and ECG studies using diagnostic equipment from leading foreign manufacturers.

    Our principle of work is maximum transparency at every stage of diagnostics and treatment. You will know exactly why a particular test or examination is prescribed and why a particular treatment option is recommended.

Specialists in the Field

Maxim Vladimirovich Raigorodsky
Maxim Vladimirovich Raigorodsky


Larisa Valeryevna Koroleva
Larisa Valeryevna Koroleva


Oleg Alexandrovich Gladkov
Oleg Alexandrovich Gladkov

Director of Evimed Medical Center